The U.S. acquired most of New Mexico in 1848, as a result of the Mexican War, and the remainder in the 1853 Gadsden Purchase. Union troops captured the territory from the Confederates during the Civil War. With the surrender of Geronimo in 1886, the Apache Wars and most of the Indian conflicts in the area were ended.
New Mexico borders Mexico on the south. The eastern border with Oklahoma lies along 103° W, and the Texas frontier runs 3 miles west of 103° W. The western border with Arizona runs along 109° W. The parallel of 37 °N latitude forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah come together at the Four Corners in the northwestern corner of New Mexico.
Cattle and dairy products top the list of major animal products of New Mexico. Because much of the state lacks sufficient water for irrigation, livestock graxe most of the arable land of the state. Cattle and sheep graze the open range throughout the year.Major crops include hay, nursery stock, pecans, and chiles. Hay and sorghum top the list of major dryland crops. Farmers also produce onions, potatoes, and dairy products. New Mexico specialty crops include piņon nuts, pinto beans, and chilis.
Tourist attractions include the Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Inscription Rock at El Morro National Monument, the ruins at Fort Union, Billy the Kid mementos at Lincoln, the White Sands and Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monuments, Bandelier National Monument, and the Chaco Culture National Historical Park.